To produce the best quality and taste of fresh fruit juice, fruit processing, the original fruit storage work must to do before we can from the following aspects of fruit storage explain in detail:
(1) the tolerance and storage of varieties of fruits is the internal factor that determines the storage of fruits.Not only different kinds of fruits have different storability, but also the same kind of fruits have different storability.Due to the tender, juicy and nutrient-rich fruits, berries have poor storage resistance.The apple peel in the fruit is more tough, with a prominent keratinized peel in the front, so it is relatively resistant to storage.Peach, apricot and so on because of the summer maturity, storage resistance is relatively poor.Citrus sweet orange has good storage resistance, while broad-skinned orange is easy to be infected with penicillium and chloromycetes and rot。Variety in the same class of different varieties, fruit varieties of fruit growth development period, mature period of the temperature gradually decreased, the fruit looks solid, dense, and has a certain hardness and elasticity of the skin tissue, is advantageous to the fruit resistant to mild bruising and anticorrosive check microbial infection, mature fruit varieties of synthesis is greater than the hydrolysis enzyme activity is often, more nutrients accumulation, has the strong oxidation system, the low temperature has good adaptability, can guarantee the normal metabolism during storage, the stronger ability to resist the infection of microorganism。From mechanical damage during the fruit or the microbial infection, mature fruit fruit breathing dramatically strengthen, is conducive to a positive defensive response, early variety is grown in high temperature and mature, mature under the condition of high temperature storage, nutrient consumption too fast, bacteria easy invasion caused decay;If stored in low temperature, it is easy to appear physiological disorder, wrinkled skin hair and corruption.The oxidative system activity of fruits of early maturity varieties is weak, the anaerobic system activity is weak, and the anaerobic respiration is significant, which is easy to cause the accumulation of some harmful metabolites.Early vegetable varieties grow rapidly, and their tissues are relatively loose and soft. When exposed to mechanical damage or microbial infection, their aerobic respiration changes little, even is inhibited, and their self-defence response is weak.Therefore, fruit processing generally choose the late - ripening varieties resistant to storage。
(2) the fruit maturity, fruit growth, maturation and aging process once edible fruit to mature stage, respiration soon enter the decline stage, fruit senescence, its storage resistance drop, quality becomes worse。Therefore, the fruit used for processing and storage should be picked at harvest and ripeness, so that the fruit is more durable.Fruit maturity is low, its surface protection organization development and imperfect, poor water retention, fruit water loss, at the same time, the strong vitality of the fruit, the respiratory metabolism, consumption of nutrients, weightlessness also many, so early to pick, instead of a fruit varieties of the inherent flavor, has mildew during storage and transportation.On the contrary, after late harvesting (except citrus), many of the hoppy fruits ripen, fall off and decay rapidly on the fruit trees, which have no value for processing and storage.
(3) appropriate low temperature of storage temperature is an important means to ensure safe storage。Under the premise of not interfering and destroying the normal metabolism function of fruit slow surface, the lower the temperature, the more can delay the process of fruit maturation and senescence, and the longer the storage life.In order to store fruits in cold storage, it is necessary to store them in time, and the temperature of the storage room should be adjusted to the appropriate low temperature range as soon as possible, so as to maintain the fruit storage resistance as far as possible.Storage temperature is regulated and controlled according to the physiological characteristics of various fruits。Some fruits require a small change in temperature during storage, because high temperature fluctuation can stimulate hydrolytic enzyme activity in fruits, promote respiration and increase consumption。In the storage environment of 0 degree Celsius, the activity of the enzyme is inhibited, and the hydrolysis is correspondingly slow。Suitable low temperature can inhibit the evaporation of water and inhibit the harm of microorganism。Storage at low temperature, such as the air moisture content is constant, with the reduction of temperature in the pressure of the saturated water decreased, relative humidity increases, there is less saturated humidity difference, cut the fruit into the surrounding air moisture evaporation.Similarly, many harmful bacteria and fungi grow slowly at low temperatures and do not harm the fruits that maintain normal metabolic function.
(4) mechanical damage been stabbed, fall, bruised, crowded injury, insect damage and damage of the fruit respiration will increase sharply, but also can destroy the fruit protective layer and lesions of the organizational structure, this will lead to the violation of microorganism, and to reinforce the fruit moisture evaporation, ethylene to produce more.Obviously, this is extremely detrimental to storage.Moreover, the fruits of stab wounds, falls, bruises and squeezes are not easy to be found, causing hidden dangers.It can spread to other fruits after being soaked and decayed by microbes.Therefore, in order to improve the quality of processing and storage of fruit, the first thing to take appropriate measures before mining, postharvest from sorting to container holding, and package transportation, storage, and each link is need to pay attention to protect the fruit from mechanical damage, to avoid any of the damage caused by the breakage of the appearance and inner quality。
(5) dormancy spores and mycelia and spores of microorganism and fungi are very small and widely exist in air, water, soil and containers and tools.Some of these microorganisms are specialized, parasitized on one or more fruits, and some are facultative or saprophytic。Once they are attached to the fruit, they reproduce quickly.Although the fruit can defend itself, it is limited.When there are more microbes, the fruit will rot and go bad.So to storage sites, containers, tools for chemical disinfection sterilization, control the microbial the harmful effect of a low level, at the same time take the potion soak (wash) fruit, fruit or use paper, can reduce the opportunity to microbial infection.It is not advisable to use only one chemical。Because, the microbe can adapt quickly, produce resistance gradually, make storage effect reduces。For rotten fruit to be handled specially, had better bury deeply incinerate, do not throw disorderly, otherwise the fruit disease that the microorganism causes will spread quickly。